Culture medium is prominent in aquaculture industry. It has been studied to use microorganisms as a nutrient source in the aquaculture industry for a long time. Modern fermentation technology and microbiology make it possible to produce a multitude of microbial feed. Feed yeast is rich in many trace elements and vitamins needed by aquatic animals and has become an important additive in artificial proportion bait such as fish and shrimp. Experts replaced some fish meal with feed yeast in the process of mixing shrimp bait, which improved the yield and survival rate of shrimp compared with traditional feed. Shellfish culture is a state of progressive development in China, but does not fully use the single-celled algae feed in the process of breeding. Farms usually replaced the algae feed with egg yolk that although met the nutritional needs of the growth of farmed animals to some extent but would make some damages to the quality of breeding water to form the consequences of breeding is not ideal. Microorganisms cause many diseases, bacteria and virous do so. In addition to maintaining good water quality and using antibiotics, vaccination is also an effective way to prevent and treat bacterial and viral diseases. In practical aquaculture, vibrio vaccine has a very good effect on prevention and treatment of various fish diseases. Many people are trying to use microbes to boost the immunity of invertebrates. Abalone were inoculated and immunized by oral and injectable attenuated vaccine. The survival rate of the immunized abalone was increased more than 50 percent. Those lead us to believe that microorganisms grown through culture medium are very effective in preventing disease occurrence in large-scale aquaculture.